Tuesday, August 4, 2020

Tips for a Pleasant Olfactory Experience

Tips for a Pleasant Olfactory Experience Back in the fall, I wasnt really sure if I made the right choice regarding my dorm. Now, Im very sure I made the right choice. I like all the people and all the things here so much. Plus, having a single01 MacGregor House has 312 singles (and 3 doubles assigned by request only). In other dorms, it can be hard for freshmen to get singles, since upperclassmen get priority in housing preferences. has been great. I have complete autonomy over my living space and habits, down to the little things like how my room smells. My definition of good-smelling room is either: a room lacking any perceptible scent, or a room having that has just a slight fragrance. Avoiding bad smells is pretty straightforward (tips 1-4). Its harder to nail the slight (emphasis on slight) fragrance part (tips 5-6). Open the window  â€" Simple but effective. Must be done with caution during the winter when leaving windows open for a long time can lead to frozen pipes. Dont eat in your room â€" Snacks might be okay. Hot meals should be avoided. Eggs smell great in the morning, but really weird when you get home in the evening. Close the door â€" I live in a dorm where there are kitchens down the hall from every room. If someone is cooking an especially aromatic dish, making sure my door is closed keeps my room scent-free. Similar to tip #2, while food smells good when youre hungry, it can be irritating to smell hours later. Take out the trash / do your laundry / vacuum your room  â€" Eliminate potential sources of bad smells by regularly maintaining the general hygiene of your living space. Perfume cards â€" This one is a bit weird, but it is a free way of getting that subtle fragrance. The next time you visit the mall02 I like taking the free shuttle from MIT to the CambridgeSide mall. I also like just walking there or walking to Newbury Street if the weather isnt bad. , stop by a department store with a big perfume section. To test perfume, you are supposed to spray it on some tester cards. I spray a few cards with a nice perfume and put them into a ziplock bag. Back in my room, I put one card on a shelf near my radiator. My room gets super subtly fragrant. I replace the card around once a week and keep the ziplock bag in my closet â€" which also makes my clothes smell pretty nice. Drink tea  â€" Making tea can also achieve that slight fragrance. Its a much more temporary smell as compared to food, so it doesnt outstay its welcome. I drink a few different varieties of tea, with my two favorites including ginger and hibiscus. Post Tagged #MacGregor House #scents MacGregor House has 312 singles (and 3 doubles assigned by request only). In other dorms, it can be hard for freshmen to get singles, since upperclassmen get priority in housing preferences. back to text ? I like taking the free shuttle from MIT to the CambridgeSide mall. I also like just walking there or walking to Newbury Street if the weather isn't bad. back to text ?

Saturday, May 23, 2020

How Does John Steinbeck Present the Theme of Violence in...

How does Steinbeck present the theme of violence in ‘Of Mice and Men’? John Steinbeck’s short novel ‘Of Mice and Men’ presents the desolate nature of 1930s America, in particular Soledad, close to where Steinbeck himself grew up and worked during this time. Notably, Steinbeck focuses on the life of migrant workers who were forced to travel from ranch to ranch in search of work as a result of the simultaneous occurring disasters ‘The Great Depression’ and ‘The Dustbowl’. Due to the economic crisis, the percentage of unemployment rose and money became increasingly tight so violence became a cheap form of entertainment for the men of America, the mentality becoming very much ‘every man for himself’ which created a hostile environment,†¦show more content†¦Another poignant character for the theme of violence is Carlson who perhaps epitomises the violent men of 1930s America. He appears unconcerned about shooting Candy’s dog and even callously cleans his gun in front of Candy before s hooting the dog for him, ‘I’ll shoot him for you’ this gives the impression that Carlson is a sadist who takes pleasure in violence perhaps as a result of the monotonous life where entertainment was scarce . When he hears that Curley is looking for Slim he immediately jumps in ‘I’d like to see the fun if it kicks off’ giving the impression he is keen to join the violence. Furthermore, at the end of the novel he is excited by the thought of chasing Lennie down to kill him ‘I’ll get my Luger’ demonstrating how he sees killing as a game and does not care much for the consequences. During the novel we see two main types of violence, needless, intentional violence and unintentional violence. Whereas both Curley and Carlson contribute largely to intentional violence, Lennie possesses no self-control and undoubtedly is unintentional in any acts of violence. Throughout the climactic scene in the bunkhouse, Lennie does not even think to defend himself against Curley’s persistent attacks, ‘make ‘em stop George’ this suggests that although Lennie is the biggest and strongest of all the men on the ranch, he is mentally weak and perhaps is not at all a violent person, despite his appearance. It’s only when GeorgeShow MoreRelatedJohn Steinbeck s Of Mice And Men2167 Words   |  9 Pagesjobs. In John Steinbeck’s Of Mice and Men, George Milton and Lennie Small wander through California in search of a new job that would help them make enough money to live their American dream on â€Å"the fatta the lan’†(Steinbeck 14). George and Lennie’s hard work and determination is not enough for them to live their dream. Lennie has a mental disability that slows the two friends down from living their dream; they have to run from job to job because of Lennie’s unintentional actions. Steinbeck incorporatesRead MoreExplore the Way the Writer Presents the Relationship Between George and Lennie in of Mice and Men3909 Words   |  16 Pageswriter presents the relationship between George and Lennie in â€Å"Of Mice and Men† Of Mice and Men was written in the 1937 by John Steinbeck, he other well know books as the Grapes of Wrath and East of Eden, h also received a Nobel Prize for Literature in 1962. This book is set in the 1930s and set in California, his home region. During this time, the USA was suffering from a great depression, this meant that it was hard to find job because the economy was very weak, so to find job the men were disposedRead MoreSummary Of Of Mice And Men Essay2240 Words   |  9 Pages20 May 2016 Of Mice and Men Ap Book Report 1. Title of Work: Of Mice and Men 2. Author and Date Written: The book â€Å"Of Mice and Men† was written in 1937 by John Steinbeck, which was during the Great Depression in the 1930s. The Great Depression caused many to lose their jobs and their homes in a short period of time. Few were rich during this time and those who had no money starved. Approximately 25% of people during the Great Depression had no jobs. The time period that John Steinbeck grown up in wasRead MoreJohn Steinbeck s Of Mice And Men1296 Words   |  6 Pages‘What freedom men and women could have, were they not constantly tricked and trapped and enslaved and tortured by their sexuality’ – John Steinbeck illustrated that in this male dominated society women were prevented to bring to the table that which would have benefited all. ‘Of Mice and Men’ written by Nobel Prize-winning author John Steinbeck in 1937, was set around the time of The Great Depression; a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of theRead MoreHow Curleys wife is presented in Of Mice and Men by Steinbeck2118 Words   |  9 PagesExplore the ways one or two minor characters are presented in the text â€Å"Of Mice and Men† â€Å"I never get to talk to nobody† – Curley’s Wife Of mice and men is a novella set in the 1930s. It is based on the theme of dreams and how they are crushed, amongst others. This book also gives an insight into the lives of men and women on ranch in America during the depression. Women pot the right to vote in the late 1920s, but during the depression, people lost interest in the women’s rights. There was a

Monday, May 11, 2020

Climate Change and Global Warming - 1074 Words

Climate change and Global Warming are out of control. This means that, no matter what policies, processes or actions are implemented, the Earth as we know it will never be the same again. There is significant evidence to support this hypothesis. The dilemma becomes whether we can limit the damage and adapt to a new status quo or not. Rising sea levels and the damage caused by this phenomenon has irreversible impacts on coastlines worldwide. Damage to sensitive reef systems cannot be fixed. This also has permanent impacts of the ecology not just of those immediate areas but also the ocean as a whole. Any discussion of the irreversibility of Climate Change needs to be briefly pre-empted by an explanation of the causes for Climate Change.†¦show more content†¦Global sea-level rise (SLR) is projected to accelerate over the next century, with research indicating that global mean sea level may rise 18–48 cm by 2050, and 50–140 cm by 2100 (Cooper et al. 2013).Basically, this means that not only is there more water in our oceans but the water that is there takes up more space because of the expansion effect of rising temperatures. These are all brought on by Global Warming and Climate Change being out of control. â€Å"Even if the world makes long term cuts to carbon emissions of 90% relative to 2009, will miss the target of limiting global warming by 2 ° by the end of the millennium†; says Nature Publishing Group, further reinforcing the fact that Global Warming is out of control. There has been a significant amount of thought and action expended ensuring many highly populated and important areas have been galvanised against the impacts of rising sea levels. Two main areas that are impacted by SLR are both Norway and the Coast of the US Gulf. This in itself is an admission that the problem is irrevocable thus necessitating action to minimise its effects. However, one region of the world where rising sea levels will be devastating is the US Gulf Coast. According to Gerard Wynn a rise in sea levels of 1 m would result in permanent flooding of one third of the region’s roads and jeopardise approximately 70% of their ports (Responding toShow MoreRelatedGlobal Warming And Climate Change974 Words   |  4 Pagesabout global warming, whether it is true or false. Is there evidence to prove that global warming has impacted the climate due to the rise in the earth’s temperature? Climate change is a problem that is worldwide that should be reviewed. The rise in the earth’s temperature has caused some impact to the weather and climate changes to many places worldwide. This rise in temperature has the potential of causing drastic changes to the earth in many ways. It is time to view the global warming concernsRead MoreClimate Change Of Global Warming924 Words   |  4 Pages Figure 0.1 shows the different effects of global warming. Global warming is the warming of our planet at an extreme rate. The Earth’s climate has warmed by 7.8OC since 1880. (Quick facts about science, 2015). What causes global warming? The cause of global warming is the carbon dioxide. This acts like a blanket. Protecting the earth, and heating the earth. Sun rays would normally bounce around the earth, but with the blanket, the sun rays heat the blanket which heats the earth. (Petersen ScienceRead MoreGlobal Warming And Climate Change1398 Words   |  6 Pages Global warming and climate change have been frequent topics of discussion over the past several years. Although people tend to focus on the politics, it is important to look past the media aspects of it into the cold hard facts of what our Earth is currently experiencing, and what has caused it in the first place. The cause of climate change includes natural causes, but human causes are what is generating such a rapid global temperature change. It’s time that the ways in which humanity affectsRead MoreClimate Change And Global Warming1060 Words   |  5 PagesClimate change (Klaus) 1000 The terms â€Å"global warming†, â€Å"climate change† or â€Å"greenhouse effect† have become more than just parts of the popular lexicon as they rather are subject of public discussions, scientific research or political debates. Despite the popularity and the ubiquity of these terms, the public’s theoretical and conceptual understanding of them and their causal relations is often based on superficial knowledge and buzzwords or caricatures outlined and depicted in several popular mediaRead MoreClimate Change : Global Warming1194 Words   |  5 PagesDonya Curtis April 19, 2017 English 1001-rough draft Global Warming Global warming is one facet of the broader term climate change. It is the increase in the average temperature of the Earth s surface air and oceans from the mid 20th century and the projected continuation. The Global warming is primarily the consequence of building up greenhouse gasses in the atmosphere. Emission rates for most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas, CO2, have increased 120 fold in the past 140 years. WhileRead MoreClimate Change And Global Warming1022 Words   |  5 PagesWhat = Climate Change Who = Emma, Aoife, Julia, Rachael, Mariah and Cà ©line What is it? Climate Change is a change in the demographic distribution of weather patterns, and related change in oceans, land surfaces and ice sheets, happening over time scales of decades or longer. It’s the world’s greatest threat. Climate change is the change in temperature over a period of time. It involves the greenhouse effect and global warming. Where is it? It is an issue affecting everyone everywhere. ClimateRead MoreClimate Change And Global Warming1474 Words   |  6 Pagesphenomenon, known as â€Å"smog† became an often daily occurrence in big, urbanized cites across the globe. Also, Al Gore’s book, An Inconvenient Truth, popularized the issue of climate change and global warming as a result of the damage that the modern world has done to the atmosphere. He noted that people resist the facts about climate change due to the inconvenience of changing their lifestyles. But, uninhibited industrialization of several countries has led to intense modernization and revolution of theRead MoreClimate Change And Global Warming928 Words   |  4 PagesThis paper will discuss climate change and global warming on the economy. The paper also gives a description on climate change and global warming. As well as what it hold for future business owners. It will also discuss what the government is doing about climate change/global warming. Climate change is a long-term shift in the statistics of the weather (including its averages). For example, it could show up as a change in climate normal (expected average values for temperature and precipitation)Read MoreClimate Change And Global Warming1630 Words   |  7 PagesClimate Related Threats Global warming will lead to uncontrollable devastation such as famine, war, and economic instability. Climate change will accelerate the dislocation of hundreds of millions of people and the extinction of many species. The negative effects of climate change are obvious on every continent. Professor Le Quere, director of the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research at the University of East Anglia said, The human influence on climate change is clear. The atmosphere andRead MoreClimate Change And Global Warming1412 Words   |  6 Pages Earth’s climate has been changed for hundreds of year dating back to the beginning of man to the ice age and today, and with that change came scientists who have been keeping track and gathering data on these changes in the climate. The climate is the source of life it provides a secure environment setting for life forms to thrive without a proper climatic setting life would begin to dwindle and eventually all life forms would go extinct . But why is the climate so important moreover exactly what

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Adult essay Free Essays

Introduction There are some people who graduate from high school and go directly to work, and there are others who go directly to college after high school. Jack was one of many people that went directly to work after high school. He felt like going to school was a waste of time. We will write a custom essay sample on Adult essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now After working in the factory for four years he was promoted to a manager. Jack felt like he was on top of the world. Ten years after being promoted, he learned that the factory was about to close down. Now Jack was about to lose everything†¦ his job, his house, and his car. What would he to do now. Jack is not the only person to have lost his job. Many people every day lose their job and have no idea what to do next. They may lose their job due to the business closing down because of bankruptcy, or because the job is relocating overseas. There are also some people who simply just want a change of employment as well as career path. There are many of people going to college for their own personal reasons. They may have been fired, laid off, or just wanted to do something other than what they were already doing career wise. Adults who receive more life experience before going to college are known as adult learners. Most adult learners find it hard to adjust to college classes, after having been in the working environment! Kenner and Weinerman explains that working before college may affect a student’s critical foundations. While dealing with adult learners, an instructor may have a harder time planning assignments for adult learners. The college instructor may need to receive knowledge about their adult learning students’ background to understand how to assign their assignment. Also by knowing the background of the adult learner, the instructor can better know which persons might need extra help and which students may not. People can have fun while learning. Some people can learn different and new things about life through skills learned, as well as used when playing video games. It had been shown that people have learned just by playing games. Learning from playing video games can increase a person actives and engagement. â€Å"One of the advantages of using certain types of computer game in education is their ability, for many learners, to engender engagement and motivation, which contributes to effective learning. Adult Learning Kenner’s and Weinerman’s report says organizational development is necessary to help an employee gain more knowledge in their job field. They both say that Knowles discussed the four different stages of adult learning. The four stages are: †¢A. self directed, taking responsibility for their own actions, and resisting having information arbitrarily imposed on them. †¢B. an extensive depth of experience, which serves as a critical component in the foundation of their self identity. †¢C. being ready to learn. As most adult learners return to college voluntarily, they are likely to actively engage in the learning process. †¢D. being task motivated. Adult students returning to college attend for a specific goal and the primary component of their motivational drive tends to be internal† (Knowles, 1984). The veterans have it harder than other adult learners. Veterans who may have been in active duty during war time have seen more things than the average person has seen. Most veterans can’t separate the difference from military life, school life, and life in general, after they’ve been in active duty in the military. Tacit theory, informal theory, and formal theory, are three of the ways that a person can design their own learning, stated by Schraw and Moshman (1995). The in classroom studies is a form of tacit and in formal theory. As of formal theory, the method of study is very hardly use of study, from the article of Kenner and Weinerman (Spring 2011). Game Engagement Theory It been said that video games can help a person in the learning experience in life. Researchers and practitioners in the field of game-based learning often assume that computer games are intrinsically motivational for most, if not all, people (e. . , Oblinger, 2004; Prensky, 2001). The U. K. is planning to make learning fun by using the video games from the report of Whitton. â€Å"The factors that the theory describes are the following: †¢1. A challenge that requires skill to achieve with an attainable goal and know rules †¢2. Complete absorption in the activity †¢3. Clear goals †¢4. Immediate feedba ck †¢5. Concentration on the task in hand †¢6. A sense of control, lacking the sense of worry about losing control †¢7. Loss of self-consciousness †¢8. Transformation of time† (Whitton 2011). There are two types of theories dealing with a basic model of learning games. The two theories are flow theories and the theory of androgogy. Flow theories are a part of the component. It types of engagement that can be engage in a level of the state of flow, from Csikszentmihalyi (1992). The means of having a different style of learn of a younger learner is known as the theory of androgogy. Conclusion In conclusion, adult learners have a hard time get back into, as well as adjusting to, the school environment than the traditional college students. When a person has been working numerous years and then decides to return to the school environment, it often is more difficult to adjust to forming a new train of thought. An adult learner may get so used to doing the things a certain way while in the working environment that they lose the ability for critical thinking. Learning can be fun sometimes. A person can learn also from playing video games. Some people may learn one thing while others learn something completely different from the same video game. Reflection I am an adult learner and can relate to what has been posted as well as what I have read. At times it is hard for me to get all my assignment in on time, but I am trying the best that I can. Sometimes it’s hard for me to understand what the instructor is asking me to do and what is required in the assignment for the week. Its major articles in my life they will have me pull from my studies. Things like working (need to make money to pay bills and to survive), family (need to give and receive family support in life), and other personally business. Life from adult living is hard, but to add going to school is harder on somebody like me. With the time I have in my life, I don’t have the time to sit in a classroom setting so I went a different route and taking online classing. I do agree that some things can be learned by games and some things can’t. It shows the basics about how life can or can’t be and how life should or shouldn’t be. Over all learning can be fun at times even that it may be applied to video games. REFERENCES Cari Kenner and Jason Weinerman (Spring 2011). Adult Learning Theory: applications to non-traditional college students. www. crla. net Nicola Whitton1 (2011). Game Engagement Theory and Adult Learning. www. sagepub. com/journalsPermissions. nav How to cite Adult essay, Essays

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Derek Jeter free essay sample

The black market is bad and the fair market is the only fair way. Compensate the athletes before the black market is into too much trouble that they cant fix. These colleges have so much money. The university of Memphis mens basketball teams brought in $6. 7 million (Evasive). They earn so much through the year and they have so much income in one game. They make $50 million a season and around $5-6 million dollars in one game. These colleges that are making around 39-10 million just in advertising alone! College coaches get 5 million dollars alone. These colleges are being very greedy with their money they can give just a slight little sliver to the players. Benefiting the college athletes is the best way to grow the school. Growing the population of a school is the best thing you can do for a city or whatever the people are living in. We will write a custom essay sample on Derek Jeter or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Growing the population of anything increases the way the sport will function the sport and benefit the sport. More students in the school the better the chance to find the players and athletes that you want. Colleges make too much money, Texas Longhorns made $50 million dollars in the bowl in 2011 (Evasive).When college athletes are getting paid for their action they want to play harder. When you have college athletes play t their best of their ability they are more than likely to play in the pros and get drafted. College athletes are great people to look up to and need something to motivate them. Who would want to choose to play for the black market? Black market is not the way to go. When people are going behind the lines just to cheat on something that is not even important then it is not fair to the colleges, players, and coaches.While in an interview with ESP. Ben Cohen said The NCAA has created a black market. You can choose between the black market and fair market. It is not fair because then they are getting the best players UT of every state to come and play for them. Coaches use the money that they get each year from advertisements and games that they can and are able to buy these players to come and play for their college. The coaches that get away with this are more than likely to succeed in their particular sport. Integrity is everything in the sport world.When someone has integrity about their sport, and they win, they feel very much more accomplished then they would if they cheated and chose the black market the get their most talented players. When colleges have the money to spend on their field when they dont really deed it, it just throws away the money that the school earns, for example. College coaches get millions of dollars like I have said earlier to coach these miracle teams. They are getting paid just as much as a professional athlete that sits the bench. That is a ridicules amount of money that these COLLEGE coaches get.The coaches that coach these teams are very well trained and very talented on their coaching. When you get a coach that can do is job really well and can contribute to the team. Have a coach that can teach sports how they are supposed to be taught their team will have great success . When allege coaching go out and scout people they look for the kids that will help out not only their team, but to contribute to the school. When a kid is very athletic and very educated they can contribute on and off the field and thats the type of kid that they need for the school.

Saturday, March 21, 2020

“If We Must Die” by Claude Mckay, We Must Fight!! Essay Example

â€Å"If We Must Die† by Claude Mckay, We Must Fight!! Essay Example â€Å"If We Must Die† by Claude Mckay, We Must Fight!! Essay â€Å"If We Must Die† by Claude Mckay, We Must Fight!! Essay Charles Bailey â€Å"If We Must Die† by Claude McKay, we must fight!! The poem â€Å"If We Must Die, by Claude McKay† is about a certain group of people who are hated and hunted by another group of others. I believe that the poet has made this poem to speak to his fellow African-Americans, who are being mistreated by the white slave owners. The speaker tells his people not to go easily, but rather fight as long as possible and don’t ever give up before they are killed. The poet believes that the worst things that these people can do is giving up and stop trying; he wants them to fight until the very end of their lives. Right from the beginning of the poem the speaker reiterates the title of the poem and the message that he is trying to convey. â€Å"If we must die, let it not be like hogs hunted and penned in an inglorious spot while round us bark the mad and hungry dogs† (1-3). This passage instills the thought in our minds that these people are being hunted and suppressed by others. The speaker knows that the end inevitable, but for himself and others he does not want them to give up. Being corned by hungry dogs should not put fear into their souls, but rather entice them to fight back even more. Following the lines from before, the speaker establishes the same message as before. He states that letting the hunters of these people kill them in vain is not an option; they were not put on this earth to die for nothing. â€Å"If we must die, O let us nobly die/ so that our precious blood may not be shed in vain† (5-7). The speaker states his opinion of the situation very clearly; he wants none of them to believe that they are dying for nothing. African-Americans at the time that this poem was made were dealing with horrible conditions from their white suppressers. The speaker is trying to convey to his fellow African-Americans that letting the white man dominate them completely is the worst thing that they can do, not just for themselves but also all of those who will come after them. He wants them to know that they are fighting for the greater cause of the whole African-American race. Next he states that monsters that do this horrible deed to them will have to honor them when dead. He believes that fighting back and not giving up will make them honor them, and not think that they were nothing. Then even the monsters that we defy shall be constrained to honor us though dead! O kinsmen! We must meet the common foe! † (7-9). The speaker strongly believes that fighting against their suppressers is the best thing to do; the suppressers will honor them indefinitely if they fight for their lives all the way to their end. The next part starts â€Å"Though far outnumbered let us show us brave/ and for their thousand blows deal one deathblow! Wh at though before us lies the open grave? †(10-12). The speaker emphasizes the impact that fighting back against these suppressers will have. He talks about them being outnumbered, most of the time that would spark something in someone to just stop and give up. The speaker states that even if they are outnumbered, that has nothing to do with giving in. He tells them to be brave and fight until the last breath they will breath in this world. Finally, he states that â€Å"Like men we’ll face the murderous, cowardly pack† (13). He wants them to remember that this is wrong what the white man is doing to them and that fighting back is the best thing that they can do. He says, â€Å"Pressed to the wall, dying, but fighting back! † (14). That is the theme of the poem and ends the poem as he started it, â€Å"If We must die. † Claude McKay wrote â€Å"If We Must Die† to motivate blacks to fight back against the white man and not die for nothing. He believed in every human life on this planet, and thought that no one should be hunted and killed for doing no wrong. He knew that the racism would not stop for years to come, but he wanted to make an attempt to inspire African-Americans to not give up.

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Anatomy, Evolution, and Homologous Structures

Anatomy, Evolution, and Homologous Structures If youve ever wondered why a human hand and a monkeys paw look similar, then you already know something about homologous structures. People who study anatomy define these structures as a body part of one species that closely resembles that of another. But you dont need to be a scientist to understand that recognizing homologous structures can be useful not just for comparison, but for classifying and organizing the many different kinds of animal life on the planet. Scientists say these similarities are evidence that life on earth shares a common ancient ancestor from which many or all other species have evolved over time. Evidence of this common ancestry can be seen in the structure and development of these homologous structures, even if their functions are different. Examples of Organisms The more closely organisms are related, the more similar the homologous structures are. Many mammals, for example, have similar limb structures. The flipper of a whale, the wing of a bat, and the leg of a cat are all very similar to the human arm, with a large upper arm bone (the humerus in humans) and a lower part made of two bones, a larger bone on one side (the radius in humans) and a smaller bone on the other side (the ulna). These species also have a collection of smaller bones in the wrist area (called carpal bones in humans) that lead into the fingers or phalanges. Even though the bone structure may be very similar, function varies widely. Homologous limbs can be used for flying, swimming, walking, or everything humans do with their arms. These functions evolved through natural selection over millions of years. Homology and Evolution When Swedish botanist  Carolus Linnaeus was formulating his system of taxonomy to name and categorize organisms in the 1700s, how the species looked was the determining factor of the group in which the species was placed. As time passed and technology advanced, homologous structures became more important in deciding the final placement on the phylogenetic tree of life. Linnaeuss taxonomy system places species into broad categories. The major categories from general to specific are kingdom,  phylum,  class,  order,  family,  genus, and  species. As technology evolved, allowing scientists to study life at the genetic level, these categories have been updated to include domain, the broadest category  in the taxonomic  hierarchy. Organisms are grouped primarily according to differences in ribosomal  RNA  structure. Scientific Advances These changes in technology have altered the way scientists categorize species. For example, whales were once classified as fish because they live in the water and have flippers. After it was discovered that those flippers contained homologous structures to human legs and arms, they were moved to a part of the tree more closely related to humans. Further genetic research has demonstrated that whales may be closely related to hippos. Bats were originally thought to be closely related to birds and insects. Everything with wings was put into the same branch of the phylogenetic tree. After more research and the discovery of homologous structures, it became apparent that not all wings are the same. Even though they have the same function- to make the organism able to get airborne- they are structurally very different. While the bat wing resembles the human arm in structure, the bird wing is very different, as is the insect wing. Scientists realized that bats are more closely related to humans than to birds or insects and moved them to a corresponding branch on the phylogenetic tree of life. While the evidence of homologous structures has long been known, it has just recently been widely accepted as evidence of evolution. Not until the latter half of the 20th century, when it became possible to analyze and compare DNA, could researchers reaffirm the evolutionary relatedness of species with homologous structures.